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KOMÁROM

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Location

Komárom is a cultural, tourist and commercial centre on the right bank of the Danube with a population of 20.000. The roads of Bakony, Vértes and Gerecse from south meet here. Opposite, on the left bank of the Danube, roads join along the Little-Danube, Vág, Nitra and Zsitva. M1 motorway, which links the western border (120 km far) to the capital, Budapest (90 km far), offers a good possibility for those who want to visit Komárom. In addition, the former Budapest-Vienna road, now road 1, also goes through our town. Visitors arriving from the west are welcomed by Koppánymonostor, its former name Katapán monostor, visitors from the east are welcomed by Szőny that joined to Komárom in 1977 in the place of Brigetio that founded by the Romans.



The history of the town

The Celts settled down in our country in about 300 BC. According to the archaeological documents they built houses in district Szőny. The Roman Empire stretched to the Danube in the firs century AD, which was defended by military camps, watching towers. The road that leads in the east west direction is a central point of the merchant and the warfare for thousands years. In addition the camp of Legia I Adiutrix was built in Brigetio in the present Szőny.

The four great legion camps of "limes" which defended province Pannonia from the north direction was situated from the present "Molaj" housing estate to the Danube. To the south direction there was the so called soldier camp that gave home to lovely public buildings, churches, civil houses. Amphitheatre, cemetery and potteries joined to the town. The home of potteries and merchants was on the market place of Szőny to the west direction from the soldier town. Here from 1992 archaeologists excavated many buildings with terrazzo floor, under floor heating; decorated with frescos and stuccos. The most significant relic is a ceiling fresco, made at the end of 100 AD and at the beginning of 200 AD, which decorated the barrel-vault in a dwelling house. This antique roman work of art was placed in Klapka Museum. The stone carvings and other relics from Brigetio and its surrounding can be found in the roman stone storage of the museum and in the Domonkos Kuny Museum in Tata.

One of the most important ports of the Danube fleet was also Brigetio. Marcus Aurelius directed his legion; II Constantinus started a victorious campaign in 358 AD and I Valentinianus emperor died here during the agreement with the defeated "kvads" in 375 AD here. The Danube as a water road played a continuously important role for centuries in the life of the town. If it was needed "naszáds" and "sajkas" defended the forts. The valuable evidence of this tight relation is the naval collection that was denoted by Dr. Ferenc Juba sea captain to György Klapka Museum in Komárom.

After the Hungarian Conquest the area on the right and left bank of the Danube got into chief Ketel's property. The first fortification was set up by the son of chief Ketel, Alaptolma, at the meeting of Vág and Danube and it was named to Komárom. On the right bank, opposite the Öregvár firstly the Saint Peter board fence was built in summer of 1586. Later its stone version became known as Csillagerőd. It provided the defence from Újszőny direction at the time when Napóleon break into in 1809.

The medieval towns had crowded market and port (where a little settlement, Rév-Komárom formed on the south bank of the Danube). Appreciating it, Béla IV vested the same rights to its inhabitants as the citizens of Buda enjoyed on 1 April 1265.

In the XV century the castle, as a popular relaxing place, served Mátyás's and Beatrix's convenience. In the Turkish era the castle became stronger as the border castle of the Hungarian Kingdom the advanced guard of Vienna: in 1586 securing the crossing from the castle to the opposite bank of Vág and Danube two pile bridgeheads were built. In the XVII century a pentagon castle was built in front of the western part of the castle. It was a very important part in the life of the town when Maria Teresa offered royal privileges to Komárom on 16 March 1745.

On 27 July 1809 Ferenc I visited the fort system. That time he gave command to build the biggest military fort system of the empire. Built parts of this system got into Hungarian hand on 29 September 1848-on the day of the battle of Pákozd-contributed to György Klapka. The"kazamata" of Fort Csillag offered defence for soldiers and artillery officers. The Austrian troops closed into blockade and on 30 March 1849 attacked the fort system. It was successfully beaten off on 26 April and the blockade was also destroyed by the united Hungarian force. Referring to this victory the day of Komárom has been organized since 26 April 1992 to which Komárom Days' rich cultural and sport program are connected.

On 2 July 1849 fights flared up again. The Austrian also attempted to occupy the fortresses on the right bank of the Danube. The Hungarian troops who beat back the attack tried to break through the blockade. That time the blockade was so strong that even Görgey on 11 July 1849 -in the biggest battle of the War of Independence- could not break through either. After Görgey's leaving the defence of the fort system of Komárom would be the duty of the troops of György Klapka. After the Világos treaty on 13 August 1849 as the last bastion of the war the impregnable fort system of Komárom remained in the hand of Hungarians. The opponents to avoid the further bloodshed signed a certificate on 27 September 1849 in Herkálypuszta that contained the conditions of the castle's hand-over. The inhabitants of Komárom who were truly proud of the heroes of the war built a wooden headboard park on 15 March 1983 opposite Fort Igmánd. From the eleven boards the biggest raises memory to the soldiers of the war; the others to Ignác Török, János Lenkey, Richard Guyon, György Klapka commanders of the castle; to Artúr Görgey commander in chief; to János Damjanich general; to József Mack, János May, János Prágay lieutenant-colonels and to László Újházy commissioner.

After the suppression of the war, only between 1850 and 1877, Ferenc I managed to carry out his idea of 1809. Fort Csillag was rebuilt between 1850-70; the huge Fort Monostor was built on Homokhegy between 1850-71, finally the Fort Igmánd between 1871-77. The latter gives home to the roman stone store of György Klapka Museum. In 1945 the soviet troops stayed in Fort Mosnostor. After their withdrawal great works began to transform Fort Monostor into outdoor warfare exhibition.

In the beginning of the XIX century - though for a little time- Komárom became an imperial centre. Ferenc I German-Roman emperor and Hungarian king escaped here with his royal household from Napóleon who occupied Vienna in 1809. As a result Komárom would be the town of forts.

The population appeared in the legal predecessor of present Komárom after the Turkish era. At first tugboats, carriers settled in Rév which was linked to Szőny that time. The settlement had 242 inhabitants in 1764 and later it became independent under the name of Újszőny. Its buildings were completely destroyed during the War of Independence of 1848/49. In the second half of the XIX century the new plans of the reconstruction was about a united town extended to both banks of the Danube. As a significant station of the joining process the Erzsébet-bridge was built in 1892, which connected the two banks, hereby Újszőny and Komárom could join in 1896. The village-like settlement, however, did not develop so much until the First World War. Some factories and the Frigyes-barrack were built, but nothing else.

The beginning of the next historical period was 10 January 1919 when the troops of Czechoslovakia occupied the northern part of the town. On the 30 April there was a vain attempt to recapture the alienated part. After the Trianon treaty on 4 June 1920 which separated the town, the northern part became Komarno as a part of the Czech Republic, the southern part of the town as Komárom-Újváros was the county town of Csonka Komárom County for some years.

The town soon got over the trauma of Trianon and started to develop: schools, public buildings, cultural buildings and houses were built. The electricity was installed and the water supply was solved. The society life started: Football Club, Civil Rifle Society, the Volunteer Fire Brigade Society, etc were formed. 500 private houses were built as well.

By 1938 the town with 7 streets became a town with 40 streets built-up as a chess-board. Between the years of the two World Wars traffic was allowed only with passport. The only restriction was that the bridge had to be closed down after 11 pm and by this time everybody had to return. In 1922 The Reformed Elementary Public School was built. In 1925 the Roman Catholic Elementary Girl's School was formed with Saint Teréz's Chapel (today Saint Imre Catholic Elementary School) decorated with Tibor Vilt's Christ relief. The State Civil School (today Sándor Petőfi Elementary School) in 1926, the Town Hall with The coat of arms made by also Tibor Vilt in 1927, the Police Station in 1930, the building of the District Court in 1935 were opened. In these years the historical churches joined. Earlier only the Littlechurch, which was dedicated to King Saint István in 1891, serviced the people's needs. The bigger one, the Jézus Szíve Roman Catholic Church, was built in 1937 on the basis of Nándor Körmendy's plans. This church in Bauhaus style is the model of the modern church architect and the church art. The frescos of its apsis was painted by Béla Kontuly, the artist of the roman school, the statue of Virgin Mary on the left side altar was created by Károly Antal, the tabernaculum's Angel Greeting door was prepared by Béla Ohmann and the ceramic pictures of the four evangelist of the pulpit was made by Margit Kovács. Three ceramic pictures of Teréz Szemereki can be found above the entrance gate. The wrought iron works are due to Endre Ascima, a talented artist from Győr. In 1927 the Reformed Community, which grew bigger between the two world wars and in 1929 the Baptist Community built a church and chapel. The reputation of the town was increased by restaurants, a cinema and the open-air swimming-pool which attracted many tourists.

On the basis of the Vienna's decision on 2 November 1938 the parts of the Upper Hungary inhabited mainly by Hungarians were reannexed to our country, herby Komárom would be a town again. The united town became the county town of the Komárom County, which was increased with those parts of Pozsony County that had got to Hungary. The offices moved from the south part of the town to the north one. After the Second World War the northern part got back to Czechoslovakia and the southern part continued to develop.

In wartime, between 1938-45 the town united again. Since then, though caring each other, the two brothers, Komárom and North-Komárom of Slovakia, have been living their independent lives. After the Second World War Komárom as a border town became one of the Hungarian centres of the international goods and passenger traffic by its road and rail bridge that connects two countries and by the motorway M1.

In the past decades storeyed buildings, housing estates, restaurants, hotels, camping, and shops were formed in the continuously developing Komárom. Its tourism is thanked to 58 °C medicinal waters, found in 1263 m deep in 1965, which attracts thousands of people who want to recover. The spa, the open-air swimming pool, the in-door swimming pool wait the Hungarian and the foreign visitors all year. The spa's surrounding formed into tourist, servicing centre. Public monuments, erected in our century, make the atmosphere of our town more attractive. So during our wandering we can meet the bust of Mór Jókai by Sándor Szandai, Shawl Waving Girl by János Pándi Kiss, the Learning Boy and Girl by Tibor Vilt, the Bird by Ferenc Labocz and works of Ferenc Csúcs and András Fáy. The First World War monument of János Zsákodi Csiszér, the Rudaczky-hussars of István Szentgyörgyi and the Sailor monument of Ferenc Csúcs also deserve the attention as well as the roman sarcophagi placed on the main square and some roads of Komárom.



City of the fortresses

History of Komárom fort system was influenced by Turkish and War of Napoleon. Its final shape was owed to Ferenc I., who ordered to build the biggest fort of the empire in Komárom. In that case of war Komárom could accommodate 200.000-strong delegation. They finished the building in 1877. System has Öreg-and Újvár, Vág-Duna bridgehead (in North-Komárom, Slovakia), Nádor-and Vágvonal, South-Komárom's fortresses are Csillagerőd, Igmánd and Monostor.Now we can introduce Fort Monostor in detail.

After the 1848-49 Hungarian War of Independence the biggest part of the system called Fort Monostor was started to build at that time and finished in 1871. It lies on the south of Danube to lengthen Nádor-vonal. Its size is as big as Öreg-and Újvár together. Area is 58 ha with "Árkász-tábor" is more than 76 ha.

The fort itself is contiguous buildings which includes 14 separated wings of buildings with 640 rooms. Useful basic area is more than 34.000 m2 and buildings cover 39.000 m2. The all built-up area is 270.000 m3. According to data 2000 bricklayers and 10.000 unskilled workers worked here. Stone was brought from Süttő's, Tardas' and Dunaalmás' caves on horse tramway.

The fort was designed by German officer of the engineer corps and these principals were the most modern at that time. Buildings and embankment are covered by ground. From outside you can't see anything except one point of it. Foreigners pass it without noticing it. Getting nearer the entrance we can discover the fort and barracks seem average buildings. Embankments are hidden.

The main power of the defence was on the fortification and top of the buildings where artillery stayed. The fort was surrounded by trench which was 9 m deep, 9,5 m wide and 1800 m long. Inside and outside there are 1,9 wide, loop-hole corridors. From outside "kazamata" people could trill into foreground of the castle. From trench was good for crossfire from every position.

Getting into the inner of the fort, on the right towards the east we can find some stables, towards the north on the basement there is a rank and file (it was built in case of war using as a 300 beds hospital). In the yard we can see storeyed officer's buildings. On the left there was a canteen, and old bakery's. Except the officer's building, external side of premises is connected to defensive corridors, which are broken by "caponniere" from west and south direction.

From external gate to the main entrance the road is covered by "Flankierungsthurm". It is the most beautiful place of the fort it is decorated by arched pillars called knight "levente" training room. Levente: member of a military youth organization in Hungary.

The biggest part of the fort is "Commander of chief tower" it can be seen from Danube direction, here we can find this place with 78 Cannon loop-hole it could be frightening. It is called "Gibraltar of Danube". It used to earn this fame because it could keep under fire Danube and block it.

Walls were made of quick-lime bricks and they were covered by limestone cyklope-couerage. Doors and windows were framed by stone and stairs were carved from red stone. From architecture documents we get to know that builders were qualified and techniques were the latest. Spiral stairs, barrel-vault give pleasure for visitors. It would deserve another survey of earthwork of the fort. Fort was used by Russian army for more than 40 years for storing traditional munitions it is found in good condition.

The total circumference of fort system is nearly 15 km. It belongs to the last bottle order castle. Gyulafehérvár was cancelled from bottle order in 1911 so Pécsvárad and Komárom forts are active until now. During peace VI: Vártüzér regiment protected the fort with 400 cannons. 13 wells are found in the yard and fort these have already been buried. When the Russian army left the fort demoliting the fort took for 2 years. Fort was provided with public utilities and conference; gourd rooms were rebuilt and renewed. An exchibition called "Várak, erődők, katonák" was opened to the public in 1998. Materials are from the museum of Military it has been a main attraction until now.

Company in the public interest was established by Ministry of National Cultural Heritage, Ministry of Defence, County and Local Government management of Treasury to develop it. Kht organises cultural programmes there and popularize it and stress the role of the military history and strategy. Traditional military groups meetings and history lessons are hold about historical events what was included in them. Bye the XIX. century fort was self- supporting and bakery and ovens are being renovated nowadays. Tourists can make appointment visiting the fort in advance on 06-34-540-580, 06-34-540-581 telephone number , visitors can get further information about events , programmes.

During the 1848-49 Hungarian War of Independence the Hungarian government realized the important role of Komárom. György Klapka was charged with getting the castle and captured it on the 29 September 1848. Komárom was blockaded since then and resisted desperately. On the 26 April 1849 soldiers defeated blockade around the fort and they sent the Austrian enemy flying and József Ferenc was forced to negotiate. To commemorate the battle the local government organizes Komárom Days every year.



Szőny

Szőny plays a specific, independent role in the life of Komárom. In 1249 archbishop of Esztergom owned Szőny according to the parochial records. After 200 years it was owned by Komárom. During King of Mathias Szőny was flourished and Brigetios buildings have been found there since the Roman time.

It had inscribed its name upon the ages of history on the 13 September 1627 when the first and second treaty of peace were written on the Island of Forró. It had important role in Turkish and Austrian ambassadors settling. After expelling Turkish from Hungary, settlement was owned by count of Miklós Zichy and his wife called count of Erzsébet Berényi.

On the 28 June 1763 earthquake hit Ószőny and it was flooded in the same year. Erzsébet Berényi had a statue raised for the memory of the earthquake, Károly Bebo sculptor made the statue in 1764. It can be seen on its original place until now where the place is suitable for celebration of mass. The three-aisled, ancient, Catholic Church was destroyed and its successor's was built in 1774-1777 in old-style Baroque.

Its fresco and pulpit are similar to Franciscan, Buda's church fresco and pulpit we can assume these were made by Gergely Vogl painter and Károly Bebo architecture. We have had written proof of the Reformed Church since 1624. György Alistáli was a main pastoral who was sent the galleys from 1674 till 1676 and Jakab Cseh Csuszi was also galley-slave and pastoral in 1686-1692. With the help of count Erzsébet Berényi and the county they had finished the Reformed church. During 1848-49 Ószőny lost when Austrian army pelt with shell fire. They wanted to destroy the tower of the Catholic Church and church itself. Church and the surrounded houses were destroyed seriously, Richard Guy on stopped bombarding intervention of Nádor Hérics pastoral.

At the end of the XIX century the owner was changed. In 1984 one part of it became baron László Solymosi's property what was donated to his daughter count Mrs Viktor Gyürky. She had the castle built in 1912-13 which operates as a János Selye hospital nowadays. Wrought-iron fence was made by András Török. In the garden of the hospital there are many special plants like English oak, Gingko bilboa, horse-chestnut tree, and beautiful Téltemető say goodbye to visitors.



Koppánymonostor

From the direction of road 10, Győr we can find pretty houses, railway bridge and Fort Monostor, and protected plant (Téltemető) at Erdő inn. In Ács forest there is a war memorial of fallen soldiers it was put up in 1870. On this area during Roman time there were watch-towers which protected a border and in the Middle age monks lived in Saint Benedek holy orders. Monks left the holy orders because of the Turkish capturing in 1529. Ruins were in good condition in 1575. Now there is a pump station there.

The city raised a monument to the memory of it that the name was given to this area and there is a stone lion what is found in Museum of György Klapka. Furthermore we can admire the baroque statue of Saint John of Nepomuk. At that time wealthy people planted vineyards and wine-press house. First presidents were wine-dressers. The Reform age and the second half of the XIX century was the golden age for this area. Local famous writer was Gáspár Beöthy and János Szarka was local judge of the Court of Appeal. Azilium was visited by Mór Jókai, Mihály Vörösmarty, József Bajza, Sándor Vachott, Gereben Vas and János Tuba was a town-clerk and a Member of Parliament, a founder of Komáromi Lapok, initiator of the building of the bridge. His house operates as a Roman Catholic chapel. We can see beautiful old-and modern style cottages and houses.



Great people of our town

GÁSPÁR ALAPY (1880-1945) a son of an ancient Komárom county was born in North-Komárom. After his studies he started to work in the town hall in North-Komárom in 1907. In 1921 he came to North-Komárom where he joined into the managing of the town as a deputy since 1922, then as a mayor since 1928. Prosperous town was formed attributed to his town forming activity. Due to his popularity and appreciating his credits, he became the mayor of the reunited Komárom on 15 July 1939. He got retired on 31 August 1944. He was arrested by the Hungarian Nazis on 17 October 1944 who took him to Fort Csillag, then to Dachau, where all the 136708 prisoners died on 5 February 1945. Even in the toughest times he dared to declare: "I took an oath that I would serve every citizen' case in the same way."

GYULA ALAPY (1872-1936) writer, journalist, archivist was born in North-Komárom. In 1900 he was appointed to be the chief-archivist of Komárom County so he could collect the medieval charters of Komárom County. In 1910 he graduated as a Master of Arts. He studied Literature, History and Archeology. He also became the secretary-general of Jókai General Education and Museum Society which formed in 1911. Many papers were edited by him (Múzeumi Értesítő, Komáromi Újság, Komáromi Lapok stb.). He was a dominant member of the intellectual life of Komárom for 40 years.

KÁLMÁN ANGYAL (1900-1965) was born in Nagymegyer in Slovakia. In 1926 he graduated in the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest. In 1927 he started to teach drawing in the Hungarian Royal State Bourgeois Boys' and Girls' School (now: Sándor Petőfi Primary School) and worked until 1965. He was the founder member and the artistic leader of the art group which formed within the district consultation office of Komárom in 1948 then the leader of the Fine Arts Circle of Komárom formed in 1950. Among his students there were many famous artists. He appeared on many local, county and country exhibitions with his pictures. He was a determining member of the cultural life of Komárom for nearly 30 years. A commemorative exhibition was organized in 2002 in South-Komárom.

ALFONZ ANKER (1925-1979) was the founder member of the carrier pigeon association of Komárom, genetic. His father was the commander of the stud farm in Komárom. In 1949 he founded the Pigeon Sport Association of Komárom. As a professional improver by breeding he dealt with the carrier pigeon breeding and other animals' improving with scientific soundness. He got an Eötvös-prize for his scientific work in 1976 and a posthumous Parliamentary Commemorative medal in 1997.

LAJOS ÁCS (1938-1959) martyr of Komárom in 1956. On 30 October 1956 he became a member of the National Guard. He joined the organization of Szelepcsényi István. He was executed on 8 September 1959 because of counter-revolutionary organization. His memorial tablet can be found on the wall of the former Ács restaurant, now Béke Szálló.

JÓZSEF BARANYAI (1876-1951) librarian, writer, publicist, born in Kalocsa. He finished his grammar school in Komárom and Pápa then studied law in Pest. From 1906 to 1945 he was the librarian of Komárom. As a librarian he was tirelessly doing research on the history of Komárom. Writings about acting, printing and Komárom county princes are linked with his name. He was the editor of many papers (Komáromi Újság, Komáromi Lapok, Komáromi Kalendárium stb.). After 1945 he was deprived of his position, he lived with his relatives in Tany village until his death.

ERZSÉBET BERÉNYI (1714-1796) is from an ancient noble family. In 1737 she married to Earl Miklós Zichy, who was the owner of the Szőny estate. In 1758 after her husband's death she managed the estate on her own. During her possession Szőny greatly developed.

MIHÁLY BOROSS (1815-1899) was born in Ószőny. He studied law in Pápa and medicine in Pest. He stayed in Székesfehérvár. In the 1848 War of Independence he was the second deputy-lieutenant of Fejér County so after the capitulation at Világos he escaped to the castle of Komárom with his family and got safe-conduct here. "Élményeim 1848-1861" and "Gyásznapok a magyar szabadságharc történetéből" is about his war memories. He was in prison from 1851 to 1855 in Josefstadt. He lived in Pest until 1860 then again in Székesfehérvár, where he was nominated judge of the district county. He edited many periodicals. After his retirement he died in Sárbogárd.

ZOLTÁN CZIBOR (1929-1997) one of the most famous member of the Hungarian football and the Golden Team started his carrier in Komárom. After the change of the regime he moved to Barcelona and he founded the Komárom Football Team due to his work and widespread sport connections of which he was the president. In 1999 Komárom named the Town Sports Ground after him; in 2001 Zoltán Czibor commemorative room was opened in the sport grounds office in the exhibition of György Klapka Museum. During his life he got several medals for his outstanding activity in the Hungarian football.

BÉNI EGRESSY (1814-1851) was an actor, composer, lyricist, folk song collector. In 1842 he married to Róza Kőnig who was from Komárom. In 1843 he set "Szózat" to music, in 1844 wrote the script of László Hunyadi. In 1848 he went to war for the Hungarian revolution as a soldier. From 1849 he served in the castle of Komárom as the director of the garrison II army corps orchestra in the status of lieutenant. Besides he took part in the edition of Komáromi Lapok in which he published his poems. In August he wrote the Klapka march (its text was written by Kálmán Thaly. After the war he wrote poem from Bánk Bán by József Katona, to his urge Ferenc Erkel composed music to it. After 2-year illness he died in 1851. His tomb can be found in cemetery Kerepesy.

KÁROLY HARMOS (1879-1956) was born in Somogy. Between 1902 and 1908 he studied painting. Between 1910 and 1943 he taught drawing in Benedictine grammar school in Komárom. In 1911 he joined the Jókai Society and he was one of the founders of Jókai Society Department of Fine Arts in 1924. Local and upper Hungarian exhibitions and presentations were organized by them. In 1920 he started his artistic drawing school where many famous painters started their carrier. His art was complex and opposite: his themes were affected by fantastic tales. Moreover he dealt with graphic arts, illustration, frescos, altar pictures, design and cartoons. In North-Komárom an exhibition was opened from his work in 2000.

MÓR JÓKAI (1825-1904) was born in North-Komárom. He was the most significant representative of the Hungarian romantic literature. After the Calvinist grammar school of Pápa he studied law in Kecskemét. Although he graduated in law he devoted his life to writing. He took part in the revolution and the war of independence. His literature was influenced by the tradition of Komárom. So many plots of his novels are connected to his home town. He was also good at fine arts what we can experience in a permanent exhibition, called "Képíró-szépíró" in György Klapka Museum in spring 2000.

ÖDÖN KÁLLAY (1879-1960) was born in New-Szőny. From 1901 he was working for 40 years at the village hall of Ószőny. Besides his work he devoted his life to getting acquainted with and collecting intellectual and material heritage of his rich historical village. He wrote the history of Szőny. His Brigetio collection is the greatest remained Hungarian antique collection. Presently it is owned by Domokos Kuny Museum in Tata.

LÁSZLÓ KECSKÉS historian was born in Komárom, his ancestors were town defending soldiers and farmers who wandered in Europe and kept their traditions. He finished his studies in Komárom in 1931. After his final exams he worked at the accountancy department of the town hall. After 7-year soldiery, one and half-year captivity, then the deportation he found his home in South-Komárom. He realized that his real profession was developing the cultural life of Komárom. He is the founder and manager of the György Klapka Museum (1965) until his death. Many historical studies and books were written by him, for example: Komárom története (1973), Komáromi mesterségek (1978), Komárom az erődök városa (1984, 1993), Komárom (1985). Managing the Museum and a Museum-friend Circle, collecting relics, historical guidance, all of them offered to present the creating-forming power of the community, to create the bourgeois' public sense. His motto: "Not only love, but know why you love your birthplace!"

GYÖRGY KLAPKA (1820-1892) served as an excellent artillery officer at the Guards of Vienna then in the 12th frontier guard regiment. In 1848 he applied at the Hungarian Army. From 28 May 1849 to 2 October he became the commander of the castle as a position of general. He handed the castle over to the imperials with only proper conditions. After the failure of the Hungarian War of Independence he was forced to emigration. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise he returned and became an MP. His memoranda are valuable source of the stories of the Hungarian War of Independence and the emigration.

THEODOR KÖRNER (1873-1957) was born in New-Szőny, where his father was an army officer. He started his carrier as a soldier, and just after the world war I. he started to get engaged in politics. Until 1923-34 he was the parliamentary representative of social democratic party. He fought against annexation of Austria to Germany. From 1945 to 1951 he was the mayor of Vienna, from 1951 to 1957 the president of the Austrian Republic.

ISTVÁN KULTSÁR (1760-1828) writer, editor was born and started to teach in North-Komárom and. Later he was sent to Szombathely. He was a significant publisher. He also sponsored the Hungarian acting. In 1827 his 4000-volume library was given to county Komárom.

LEHÁR FERENC (1870-1948) was born in North-Komárom. His mother was descendant of an ancient noble family in Komárom, who his father met as a soldier conductor. Lehár was also a soldier conductor. His composer carrier started with light operas. He spent most of his life in Vienna, but he lived in Berlin and Zürich too. As one of the most prominent representatives of the light opera in the beginning of the century he made a conquest of the opera-goers all over the world.

GYÖRGY LENHARDT (1901-1877) was born in North-Komárom. In the Benedictine grammar school he was a student of Károly Harmos. In Budapest he graduated from the college of applied arts and as he came home he became the founder member of the JESZO. After the Trianon peace he moved to Dunaalmás with his family and started to work in the Aluminium Oxide factory in Almásfüzítő. After his retirement he became the restorer of the museum of Tata. From 1980's he collected his town's archaeological relics. In 1997 a commemorative exhibition was opened in South-Komárom.

MÁRTON NAGY (1901-1990) was born in North-Komárom. From 1920 to 1923 he was an undergraduate at the college of applied arts in Budapest. After returning home he was an assistant at Károly Harmos course. He was a founder member of the JESZO. After the Second World War he and his wife were deported to Hungary. In 1955 he was placed to South-Komárom as an art teacher and during teaching he acquired a pedagogical degree. In1965 he retired from the György Klapka primary school. He is mentioned as the painter of the poor of Komárom. In autumn 2001 an exhibition was organized from his work on his centenary of his birth in North-Komárom.

LÁSZLÓ PATAY (1932-2002) is a painter, was born in North-Komárom. They lived in Örsújfalu then they were deported to Kismegyer after the Second World War. He graduated at the college of Fine Arts in Budapest then as the successor of Jenő Barcsay he taught anatomy. His pictures can be found all over the world in public- and private collections. He also painted religious frescos in a great amount. He took part in many individual and group exhibitions both in Hungary and abroad. His work, talent and vocation were rewarded with Munácsy prize, Tornya-plaque, Merited Artist-title and from II John Paul pope he got a Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice-prize. He was the member of the Science, Arts and Literature European Academy, and Hungarian Art Academy. In 1998 an exhibition was organized from his work.

MIKLÓS PÁLFFY (1552-1600) he was the commander of chief from 1584 to his death. He did his best to promote the strengthening strategically important castle. The strategic significance of Komárom was increased by the fact that he had a bridge built over Vág-Komárom. He repaired the castle of Komárom, built the board fences of Danube and Vág-Danube, and organized the defence of Csallóköz. Several Turkish sieges were beaten off by him, including the dreadful siege of Szinán pasha.

GYÖRGY RAUSCHER (1902-1930) was born in Dorog. He moved to Komárom when he was one, where his father was the district doctor. He started his graphic and artistic studies at the Benedictine grammar school of Komárom as the student of Károly Harmos. After his school leaving exam he studied in Vienna then at the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest. In 1927 he moved to Berlin, where he painted the prominent members of the public and artistic life. After that he lived in Nizza and Paris. The most outstanding Hungarian representative of the artistic trend, called materialism, died in his home town. His brother, László Rauscher, inherited his works what he offered to György Klapka Museum in Komárom. In 1996 a commemorative exhibition was organized in South-Komárom.

GYŐZŐ RÁFAEL was born in 1900 in North-Komárom. His teacher was Károly Harmos, and then he studied at the college of Fine Arts in Budapest. In 1929 he went to the Middle East. He lived in Lebanon for 10 years, where he worked as a restorer and painter. He did artistic formation and restoration of palaces and hotels. He painted the frescos of the parliament in Beirut. In 1940 he returned and worked in Transylvania and Lake Balaton. After the Second World War he became outcast, so he could return to the artistic life after 1965. That time he made only non-figurative pictures. He died in Budapest in 1981. His exhibition was in South-Komárom in 1996.

FERENC SÁRKÁNY (1867-1927) was born in North-Komárom in an ancient noble family. He studied in Komárom and Győr then law in Budapest. In 1889 he became a county deputy clerk, then until 1891-1912 he was the chief of commander of the munipicial Komárom. He filled many social functions. In 1912 he became an MP of the Labour Party. From 1915 he was the director of the Country Health Care Centre Office in a position of ministerial counsellor. Because of his serious diabetics he retired in 1925. Placing of the statue of John of Nepomuk to Koppánymonostor is indebted to him in 1901.

ANTAL SCHIDTHAUER (1853-1943) chemist was born in Nagyberecs. In 1843 he moved to Komárom where he bought"Megváltó" (Salvator) chemist's-founded in 1789. In 1863 he purchased the area of bitter water springs, which was discovered in the border of Nagyigmánd and he founded the Bitter Water Well Company of Igmánd.

LAJOS SCHMIDTHAUER (1853-1943) chemist was born in North-Komárom. He studied pharmacy in Budapest in 1873. At the beginning he started to work beside his father then in 1880 he took over the management of the chemist's and the bitter water's works. The wholesale selling of the bitter water of Igmánd and the establishment of the bottling and distributing works of South-Komárom, where work was continued until 1962.

JÓZSEF SZINNYEI Sr. (1830-1913) bibliographer, literary historian, library was born in North-Komárom. During the Hungarian War of Independence he served as a soldier in the castle of Komárom. His memories was written in "Komárom in 1848/49" by him. He organized the Newspaper Centre of the Hungarian National Museum and in his volume "Magyar írók élete és munkái" he wrote about 30000 writers. With his hard work he deserved the name "Steam-ant".

SÁNDOR TAKÁTS (1860-1932) piarist teacher, historian, was born in North-Komárom. His books mainly dealt with the era of Turkish wars but several publications about the history of Komárom and its surroundings are known. Appreciating his work he was chosen among the members of the MTA and the Kisfaludy Society. He gladly stayed in his home town and in his garden in Elisabeth Island.

ZSIGMOND TOÓTH DR. (1879-1928) was born in North-Komárom. In 1914 he graduated in law then in political science in Budapest. In 1914 he started to work in the Mayor's Office. In 1919 he came to Komárom to control the management of the town. At first he was a deputy mayor then from 1925 a counselor. He filled many social functions. His tomb can be found in the cemetery of South-Komárom.

JÁNOS TUBA (1885-1920) was from an ancient family from Komárom. He started to work as a deputy clerk in the town hall. In 1880 he was the founder of Komáromi Lapok so he immediately got into the public life. He became a town clerk then from 1892 he was the provincial saving bank manager in Komárom and until 1905 an MP of Komárom. He was the initiator of the building of the iron bridge over the Danube and putting up Klapka statue.

BÉLA ZSOLT (1895-1949) was born in Új-Szőny. He studied in Benedictine Grammar school in Komárom, then at the University of Budapest. He was discovered by Sándor Bródy for the Hungarian political journalism. He worked as a journalist for many bourgeois papers (Világ, Magyar hírlap, Toll). His plays, novels, article collections proved us his hard-working character. He was the only representative of bourgeois radicalism who stayed at home. He was taken to labor force to then in 1942 then in 1944 to Germany. In 1945 he arrived home. In his autobiography, Thunderbolt, he wrote about his birthplace in a caricaturical way.
Dear Inhabitants, Dear Visitors!

Welcome on the new website of Komárom Town.
As a Mayor the most important thing for me is to inform you about the daily program of the town. At the same time the goal of our local government is to get more and more people to know Komárom. So please write us your opinions, ideas and offers to build up our common home, Komárom.

Faithfully,

Dr. Molnár Attila
mayor

Rendezvénynaptár

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